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Snake

A snake is a strange animal. It walks on its ribs and it smells with its tongue. Since its teeth are sharp like needles and not good for chewing, it swallows its food whole.

The snake's jaws can stretch a great deal. Its body, too, can stretch to several times its normal size. So even a small snake can easily swallow a mouse whole, and a snake just an inch across can gulp down a young bird three inches across. Such a large meal might last the snake for months. In fact, some snakes have been known to go without eating for as long as two years.

A. Check the correct choice:

1. The writer thinks snakes have a strange way of ………………

                      a. smelling                  b. sleeping                   c. chewing                d. both a & b

2. A snake's teeth are like ........................ .

                  a. grinders                   b. needles                    c. ribs                        d. knives

3. The second paragraph tells why a snake .............

                  a. uses its tongue for smelling                         b. has to chew its food well

                  c. has a low temperature                                 d. can swallow its food whole

4. Compared with its meal, the snake is often much .............

                  a. shorter                      b. thinner                       c. bonier                 d. slower

5. The passage says that a snake's food may include whole ……..

                       a. animals                     b. birds                          c. plants                d. both a & b

6. As a result of its eating habits, the snake ........................ .

                    a. walks on its ribs                                          b. can go for months without food

                    c. needs a lot of water                                     d. eats only once a year

                                                                MICROWAVES

Microwaves are different from ordinary radio waves; they have a higher frequency. They are also better for communication; they can carry many messages at the same time . There is only one problem with microwaves .They can only travel in a straight line; they cannot travel in curved lines. In other words, they cannot follow the curvature of the earth. As a result, microwave stations are usually constructed every thirty or so miles from each other . Since it is impossible to build microwave stations in the ocean , a different method must be used for overseas communication . This is the communication satellite. With it , microwaves can be sent a very long distance and then bounced back to the earth.

A. Check the correct choice:

1. Microwaves differ from ordinary radio waves because …………….

                                 a. they are more frequent                                             b. they are much higher

                                 c. their frequency is better                                           d. their frequency is higher

2. The problem with microwaves is that they……….

                                  a. only travel in circles                                                b. only travel straight

                                  c. follow the curves of the earth                                 d. can not travel straight

3. Microwave stations are constructed every ........................... .

              a. 3 or so miles                   b. 30 or so miles                       c. 13 or so miles                    d. 300 or so miles

4. Overseas communication is provided by ........................... .

                           a. microwave stations in the ocean                                b. microwave stations on mountains

                           c. microwave stations in the sky                                   d. microwaves from the earth

5. The underlined " it " refers to …………….  .

                            a. a different method                                                    b. the oversea communication

                            c. the microwave station                                         d. the communication satellite

 

 

Sun's Energy

All the useful energy at the surface of the earth comes from the activity of the sun. The sun heats and feeds mankind. Each year it provides men with two hundred million tons of grain and nearly ten million tons of wood. Coal, oil, natural gas, and all other fuels are stored - up energy from the sun. Some was collected by this season's plants as carbon compounds. Some was stored by plants and trees ages ago.

Every waterpower derives from the sun. Water turned into vapor by the sun falls as rain. It courses down the mountains and is converted to electric power.

Light transmits only the energy that comes from the sun's outer layers, and much of this energy that is directed toward the earth never arrives. About nine - tenths of it is absorbed by the atmosphere of the earth. In fact the earth itself gets only one half - billionth of the sun's entire output of radiant energy.

A. Check the correct choice:

1. All the useful energy at the surface of the earth comes   ........................

                                     a. directly from the sun                                        b. from the sun's activity

                                     c. from energy stored by the sun                          d. from radiation of the sun

2. For mankind, the sun is the source of ……..

         a. solar activity                     b. all heat                        c. all food                            d. both b & c

3. Radiant energy is stored as carbon compounds by ........................ .

         a. plants                                b. coal, oil, and natural gas          c. inflammable substances          d. rain

4. The sun's energy indirectly provides the earth with ........................ .

           a. fuels                                b. waterpower                              c. light                                    d. both a & b

5. The largest part of the radiant energy directed toward the earth is ........................ .

                                  a. stored by the current season's plants                     b. turned into fuel

                                  c. absorbed by the earth's atmosphere                      d. used for electric power

6. Of the sun's entire output of radiant energy, the earth receives

                 a. nearly all                   b. about half               c. a very small portion            d. all that comes from the sun's outer layers

A PARTICLE IN THE UNIVERSE

The earth seems big to us, but it is only one particle floating along with countless other particles in space. Our sun is another such particle. It is only a large star at the edge of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Nine small planets and about two thousand smaller bodies all revolve round it in a fixed order. There are many stars larger and brighter than the sun in the Milky Way. There are also many millions of galaxies in the universe as big as, or bigger than , the Milky Way. The distance from the earth to other bodies in space is measured by astronomers in light years, that is, the distance (5.88 million miles) that light travels in one year. The farthest galaxies are more than two billion (= two million  million  ) light years away from the earth. Each galaxy is made up of millions of stars and satellites. There are vast distances between one galaxy and another.

A. Check the correct choice:

1. The earth is ............................ .

               a. the largest particle in space                       b. one of a few particles in space

               c. really a minute particle in space               d. almost as big as other particles in space

2. The Milky Way, our galaxy, consists of ............................ .

            a. nine planets and 2000 smaller bodies                b. one star together with nine planets

           c. many millions of stars and revolving bodies     d. many larger and brighter stars than the sun

3. In space, distance is measured in light ............................ .

           a. years                     b. ratios                       c. ships                     d. meters

4. Light travels ............................ a year.

          a. 5.88 million miles     b. 946 billion kilometers       c. two billion miles    d. both a & b

5. We can conclude from the passage that a journey to the farthest galaxies ............................ .

         a. will soon become probable                  b. will never be possible

         c. will no longer be a dream                    d. has already been taken

 

 

 

 

 

CLIMATE & INTELLIGENCE

If you are like most people, your intelligence varies from season to season. You are probably a lot sharper in the spring than you are at any other time of year. A noted scientist, Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1976) concluded from other men's work and his own among people in different climates that climate and temperature have a definite effect on our mental abilities. He found that cool weather is much more favorable for creative thinking than is summer heat. This does not mean that all people are less intelligent in the summer than they are during the rest of the year. It does mean, however, that the mental abilities of large numbers of people tend to be- the lowest in summer .

Spring appears to be the best period of the year for thinking . One reason may be that in the spring man's mental abilities are affected by the same factors that bring about great changes in all nature. Fall is the next -best season, then winter . As for summer , it seems to be a good time to take a long vacation from thinking .

A. Check the correct choice.

1. According to the passage, your intelligence probably ………..

                a. stays the same throughout the year                    b. varies from day to day

                c. changes with the seasons                                   d. changes from year to year

2. Huntington based his conclusions on ........................... .

       a. records of changes in his own intelligence              b. work with people in different climates

       c. records of temperature change                                 d. all of the above

 3. Ellsworth Huntington decided that climate and temperature have

             a. a great effect on everyone's intelligence             b. some effect on most person's intelligence

             c. some effect on a few person's intelligence          d. no effect on most person's intelligence

4. It seems that the cold of winter ........................... .

          a. increases the ability to think                                    b. is the best time for thinking

          c. is better for thinking than is very warm weather     d, decreases the ability to think

5. One possible reason why spring is the best season for thinking is that ........................... .

          a. all nature, including man, is growing then        b. it lasts longer than the other seasons

          c. it is not too warm and not too cold                    d. both b & c

6. The two best seasons for thinking seem to be ........................... .

     a. spring and fall            b. winter and summer          c. summer and spring          d. fall and winter

THE EARLY WHALES

All animals are thought to have come from the sea to land. But there are some animals that went back to live in the sea.

Fossils suggest that the ancestors of whales were mammals that lived on the land. They were probably huge beasts with powerful jaws and teeth. Scientists think these mammals fed on fish and other marine animals. They caught the fish at the edges of the ocean or the banks of river deltas. Perhaps over the years these land animals followed their food into deeper and deeper water. As time passed, the bodies of these land beasts changed so that they could live in the sea. For instance, their front legs became flippers. These beasts developed into whales, sea lions, and sea elephants that we know today.

1. It is thought that all animals first lived ........................... .

                 a. in the sea                      b. in the sky                  c. on the land                  d. on the moon

2. The idea that the whale's ancestors once lived on land is suggested by

                 a. the whale's eating habits             b. fossils             c. both a & b             d. neither a nor b

3. The whale's ancestors probably had strong ........................... .

    a. eyes and ears            b. toes and feet                c. jaws and teeth              d. both a & b

4. These land mammals caught fish on ........................... .

    a. ocean shores             b. river banks                  c. both a & b                   d. neither a nor b

5. The mammals moved into deeper water probably because they

     a. were too hot         b. had too many enemies on land        c. were following the fish  d. wanted to explore

6. It may have been that the mammals were able to live in the water because ........................... .

   a. their bodies changed       b. they were so large    c. the water wasn't too deep   d. they had always had fins

7. Besides whales, other animals whose ancestors may have lived on the land are ........................... .

    a. sharks and shrimp      b. sea horses and frogs    c. sea lions and sea elephants      d. none of the above

 

CLIMATE & INTELLIGENCE

If you are like most people, your intelligence varies from season to season. You are probably a lot sharper in the spring than you are at any other time of year. A noted scientist, Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1976) concluded from other men's work and his own among people in different climates that climate and temperature have a definite effect on our mental abilities. He found that cool weather is much more favorable for creative thinking than is summer heat. This does not mean that all people are less intelligent in the summer than they are during the rest of the year. It does mean, however, that the mental abilities of large numbers of people tend to be- the lowest in summer .

Spring appears to be the best period of the year for thinking . One reason may be that in the spring man's mental abilities are affected by the same factors that bring about great changes in all nature. Fall is the next -best season, then winter . As for summer , it seems to be a good time to take a long vacation from thinking

A. Check the correct choice.

1. According to the passage, your intelligence probably …….

         a. stays the same throughout the year                        b. varies from day to day

         c. changes with the seasons                                        d. changes from year to year

2. Huntington based his conclusions on ...........................

         a. records of changes in his own intelligence               b. work with people in different climates

         c. records of temperature change                                d. all of the above

3. Ellsworth Huntington decided that climate and temperature have

          a. a great effect on everyone's intelligence                  b. some effect on most person's intelligence

          c. some effect on a few person's intelligence              d. no effect on most person's intelligence

4. It seems that the cold of winter ........................... .

       a. increases the ability to think                                  b. is the best time for thinking

       c. is better for thinking than is very warm weather   d. decreases the ability to think

5. One possible reason why spring is the best season for thinking is that ........................... .

   a. all nature, including man, is growing then        b. it lasts longer than the other seasons

        c. it is not too warm and not too cold                   d. both b & c

Thomas Alva Edison was awarded more patents on inventions than any other Americans. When he died in 1931, Americans wondered how they could best show their respect for him. One suggestion was that the nation observe a minute or two of total blackout. All electric power would be shut off in homes, streets , and factories. Perhaps this suggested plan made Americans REALIZE fully what Edison and his inventions meant to them . Electric power was too important to the country. Shutting it off for even a short time would have led to complete confusion. On the day of Edison's funeral , many people silently dimmed their lights. In this way they honored the man who had done more than anyone else to put the great force of electricity at his countrymen's fingertips.

A. check the correct choice.

1. This selection says that Thomas Edison ........................... .

            a. was the only important American inventor                b. received the first American patent

            c. received more patents than any other American        d. was the first American inventor

2. People decided to honor Edison when ……..

           a. he made the first electric light                                    b. electric power was 100 years old

           c. the country realized electricity's importance              d. he died in 1931

3. The suggested plan was to ........................... .

      a. turn off the lights in factories and schools          b. observe a few minutes of total silence

      c. dim all electric lights                                             d. shut off all electricity for a short time

4. Americans fully realized what Edison's inventions meant when they

          a. heard of his death                                            b. heard of the plan to honor him

       c. first used electric power                                 d. tried to carry out the plan

5. The plan was never carried out because ........................... .

       a. not everyone wanted to honor Edison                  b. It was too difficult

       c. electric power was too important to the country  d. it honored only one of Edison's inventions

 

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