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Contrast Conjunctions


Contrast and concession conjunctions are use to express oppositions.

Transitional Conjunctions:


But-However-Nonetheless-Yet-Even so-Nevertheless-Still-Notwithstanding
They are mostly used between two independent sentences or clauses to join them.

Example:

I studied hard, nevertheless, I couldn't pass my English Exam.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Although-Though-Even though-Much as-Notwithstanding-No matter + question word-However + adjective/adverb- Adjective/adverb + though/as

They are used to join a dependent clause(also called a subordinate clause) with an independent clause.

Used with a clause

Example:

Although I studied hard, I couldn't pass my English Exam.

Used as a prepositional phrase

Despite - In spite of - For all - Regardless of - Notwithstanding

Example:

Despite studying hard, I couldn't pass my English Exam.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words or phrases that join two nouns, phrases or clauses. There are two types: coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating Conjunctions

The coordination kind join two grammatically equal elements, for instance, two main clauses. These conjunctions include:

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Remembered with the mnemonic FANBOYS.

Other classes of words have a linking function. For instance, linking adverbs can link clauses together. The table below shows the four main functions of coordinating conjunctions. (The adverb column has been added for comparison


).

Function

Example Conjunctions

Addition

and, nor

Alternative

or

Contrast

but, yet

Inference

for, so

Examples

When they got there the place was empty and they found no evidence the place had been occupied recently.

and joins the clause before to the one after. It does not indicate any particular relationship between them, and the clauses can be interchanged.

There was a bang and the lights went out.

and joins the two clauses, but they cannot be interchanged. It tells us that event of the first clause comes before the event of the second.

She had waited all day but couldn't get in to see them.

but joins the two clauses, indicating some contrast between them.

You can choose this one or that one, but not both.

or joins the first and the second clauses, indicating an alternative. but joins the second and third clauses, indicating an exception

He always studied hard, yet he never seemed to do well.

yet joins the two clauses, indicating a contrast.

He felt despondent, for he had searched all day, yet he had not found them.

for joins the first two clauses indicating a cause or reason. yet joins the last two clauses, indicating a contrast.
The conjunction and sometimes tells us little or nothing about the relationship between the two clauses, but implies they belong together. Sometimes it means after that, and the first clause occurs earlier in time than the second. The other conjunctions in the table above tell us some relationship. For instance, yet tells us the two clauses are contrasted. If the only conjunction we can think of to relate two clauses is and, then we should make sure the two clauses really belong together.

For instance:

The police and the doctors are trying to find out the cause of death.

The police and the doctors are seeking the same end, discovering the cause of death. So they belong together in the sentence.

Mary is beautiful. She has a pretty face and plays the violin.

If the topic is beauty, we might wonder how and plays the violin is relevant.

Subordinating Conjunctions

While the coordinating conjunctions join two equal parts of the sentence, the subordinating conjunctions join a modifying clause to a main clause. Subordinating conjunctions include:

When he comes, I will be ready.
Before the clock struck seven, they had assembled in the road.
After the sun rises, we will set out on our journey.
Once we have the information, we will begin the analysis.

place

The city was located where the old castle had been.

comparison

They were as ready as they would ever be.
He was as tall as she was (tall).

condition

The church bells will ring, if the Vikings land.
Unless we stay till late, we can get a bus home.

contrast

Although she was very popular, she wasn't pretty.
She was a good actress, while he was only a mediocre actor.
He used to be reckless, whereas now he is cautious.

cause or reason

The bomb went off because they lit the fuse.
She was annoyed, as they had not completed the work.
All had been forgotten, since it was long ago.

 

 

Double Conjunctions (Correlatives)

Coordinating double conjunctions join two equal clauses:

 

Correlating Conjunctions -  Double Conjunction

Example

both...and

He told them both where to go and how to get there.

either...or

She could either have one week abroad or two weeks at home.

neither...nor

It was neither possible nor advisable.

not only...but (also)

She was not only their mentor, but also their friend.

 

Subordinating Double Conjunctions   Double Conjunction
Subordinating double conjunctions
join two clauses: one clause is subordinated to the other.

Example

if ...then

If he had told the truth, then he wouldn't be in trouble. 

scarcely...when

Scarcely had she gone out, when he arrived. 

hardly...when

He had hardly finished cleaning the car, when they arrived.

more...than

No one loves you more truly than I.

less...than

He was less a rogue than a fool.

so...that

She was so angry that she could have cried. 

such...that

The place was such a problem in terms of maintenance that he sold it.

.: Weblog Themes By MihanSkin :.

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